Assessment strategies and tools:Checklists, rating scales and rubrics
Checklists, rating scales, and rubrics are tools that set specific criteria and allow teachers and students to gather information and make judgments about what students know and can do about outcomes. They offer systematic ways to collect data on specific behaviors, knowledge, and skills.
The quality of information acquired through the use of checklists, rating scales, and rubrics largely depends on the quality of the descriptors chosen for the assessment. Its benefit also depends on students' direct participation in evaluating and understanding the feedback provided.
The purpose of checklists, rating scales, and rubrics is to:
- provide tools for the systematic recording of observations
- provide tools for self-assessment
- provide sample criteria for students before collecting and evaluating data on their work
record the development of specific skills, strategies, attitudes, and behaviors needed to demonstrate learning
- Clarify students' instructional needs by providing a record of current performance.
Tips for developing checklists, rating scales, and rubrics
- Use checklists, rating scales, and rubrics against outcomes and standards.
- Use simple formats that students can understand and that communicate information about student learning to parents.
- Make sure the features and descriptors listed are clear, specific, and observable.
- Encourage students to help construct appropriate criteria. For example, what are the descriptors that demonstrate performance levels in problem solving?
- Make sure checklists, rating scales and rubrics are dated to track progress over time.
- Leave space for notes or anecdotal comments.
- Use generic templates that are familiar to students and to which multiple descriptors can be quickly added depending on the outcomes being evaluated.
- Provide guidance for students to use and create their own checklists, rating scales, and rubrics for self-assessment purposes and as guidelines for goal setting.
verification listoften provide a yes/no format regarding the demonstration of specific criteria by the student. This is similar to a light switch; the light is on or off. They can be used to record the observations of an individual, a group or an entire class.
rating scalesallow teachers to indicate the degree or frequency of behaviors, skills and strategies presented by the student. To continue the light switch analogy, a rating scale is like a dimmer switch that provides a variety of performance levels. Rating scales establish criteria and provide three or four response options to describe the quality or frequency of student work.
Teachers can use rating scales to record observations, and students can use them as self-assessment tools. Teach students to use descriptive words such asforever,usually,sometimesyNeverhelps them identify specific strengths and needs. Rating scales also provide information for students to set goals and improve performance. On a rating scale, the descriptive word is more important than the related number. The more precise and descriptive the words are for each point on the scale, the more reliable the tool.
Effective rating scales use descriptors with clearly understood measures, such as frequency. Scales based on subjective quality descriptors such asmarket,bomogreat, are less effective because the single adjective does not contain enough information about which criteria are indicated at each of these scale points.
Increase the assessment value of a checklist or rating scale by adding two or three additional steps that give students the opportunity to identify the skills they would like to improve or the skill they find most important. For example:
- put a star next to the skill you think is most important to encourage others
- Circle the skill you would most like to improve
- Underline the skill that is most challenging for you.
headingsuse a set of criteria to evaluate a student's performance. They consist of a fixed measurement scale and a detailed description of the characteristics of each performance level. These descriptions focus on thequalityof the product or performance and not theamount🇧🇷 for example, no number of paragraphs, examples to support an idea, spelling errors. Rubrics are commonly used to assess student performance with the intent of including the result in a grade for reporting purposes. Rubrics can increase scoring consistency and reliability.
Rubrics use a specific set of criteria to assess student performance. They can be used to rate individuals or groups and, like rating scales, can be compared over time.
Development of rubrics and scoring criteria
Rubrics are increasingly recognized as a way to effectively assess student learning and communicate expectations directly, clearly, and concisely to students. The inclusion of rubrics in a teaching resource provides opportunities to consider what demonstrations of learning are like and to describe stages in the development and growth of knowledge, understanding, and skills. To be most effective, rubrics must allow students to see the progression of mastery in developing understanding and skills.
Rubrics should be constructed with student input whenever possible. A good place to start is to define what quality work looks like based on learning outcomes. Performance examples should be used to demonstrate to students what excellent or acceptable performance looks like. This provides a collection of quality work for students to use as reference points. Once the standard is set, it's easy to define what exemplary levels and sub-performance levels look like. The best rubrics have three to five descriptive levels to allow for discrimination in evaluating the product or task. Rubrics can be used for summative purposes to measure grades by assigning a score to each of the various levels.
When developing a rubric, consider the following:
- What are the specific results of the task?
- Do students have any experience with this or a similar task?
- How is the excellent performance? What are the qualities that distinguish an excellent answer from other levels?
- What are the other responses along the performance quality continuum like?
- Is each description qualitatively different from the others? Is there the same number of descriptors at each quality level? Are the differences clear and understandable to students and others?
Start by developing criteria to describe the Acceptable level. Then use Bloom's taxonomy to identify the differentiating criteria as you move up the scale. Criteria should not go beyond the original task performance, but rather reflect the higher order thinking skills that students can demonstrate within the parameters of the initial task.
When developing grading criteria and quality levels for a rubric, keep the following guidelines in mind.
- Level 4 is thestandard of excellencelevel. Descriptions must indicate that all aspects of the work exceed grade-level expectations and show exemplary performance or understanding. This is a "Wow!"
- Level 3 is theMoving closer to the standard of excellencelevel. Descriptions should indicate some aspects of the job that exceed grade-level expectations and demonstrate strong performance or understanding. This is a "Yes!"
- Level 2 is theMeets acceptable standard🇧🇷 This level should indicate the minimum acceptable competencies to meet grade level expectations. Performance and understanding is emerging or developing, but there are some bugs and mastery is not complete. This is a "On the right track, but...".
- Level 1It still does not meet the acceptable standard.This level indicates what is not appropriate for grade level expectations and indicates that the student makes serious errors, omissions, or misunderstandings. This is a "No, but...". The teacher needs to make decisions about the appropriate intervention to help the student improve.
Creating rubrics with students
Learning increases when students are actively involved in the assessment process. Students do better when they know the purpose, see role models, and know how their performance compares to learning outcomes.
Learning outcomes become clearer when students help describe the criteria used to assess performance. Use brainstorming and discussion to help students analyze what each level looks like. Use learner-friendly language and encourage learners to identify descriptors that are meaningful to them. For example, a Grade3 class might describe quality levels with sentences like the following.
- Go beyond
- meets the brand
- Needs more work.
Use work samples to help students practice and analyze specific criteria to develop a list of critical items. They can also use samples to practice assigning performance levels and comparing criteria from one level to another.
While rubrics are often used as learning assessment tools, they can also be used as learning assessment tools. Students can benefit from using rubrics as they become more proficient at judging the quality of their work and examining their own progress.
- Involve students in the assessment process by having them participate in creating a rubric. This process facilitates a deeper understanding of expected results and associated evaluation criteria.
- Once a rubric is created, students can use it to guide their learning. The criteria described in a rubric serve to focus students' thinking about their work and facilitate the definition of learning objectives for a given performance assessment. Through self-assessment or peer assessment, students can use a rubric to assess work completed to date and use it to guide their planning for "next steps" in learning.
What is a checklist rating scale and rubrics? ›
Checklists, rating scales and rubrics are tools that state specific criteria and allow teachers and students to gather information and to make judgements about what students know and can do in relation to the outcomes. They offer systematic ways of collecting data about specific behaviours, knowledge and skills.How checklist and rating scale are used in the evaluation? ›
Checklists and rating scales can be used to assess the students' abilities, attitudes, or performance in process areas such as communication skills, linguistic skills, extent of participation or interest in the topic.Why are rubrics and checklists important? ›
Checklists and rubrics help students understand expectations as they navigate more complex tasks and assignments. By listing learning targets and criteria, checklists and rubrics help students monitor their work, enhancing Metacognition and allowing for revisions, particularly during the Composition process.What is the difference between a rubric and a checklist? ›
A rubric is a tool that has a list of criteria, similar to a checklist, but also contains descriptors in a performance scale which inform the student what different levels of accomplishment look like.What is the purpose of checklist in assessment? ›
A checklist can be used to make sure that all potential categories are considered but allows the evaluator to focus on those that are most salient for judging a specific assessment program. Full explication of these topics, with important subcategories and criteria, is given later in the paper.What are examples of rating scales? ›
- This type of scale is one of the most commonly used questionnaire types for online and offline surveys. ...
- The most common example is the Likert scale, star rating, and slider. ...
- The scale is commonly used to gain feedback or to evaluate.